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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 11

Ultrasound-enhanced electrochemical mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid in aqueous solutions: Assessed by response surface methodology


1 Student Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Nanotechnology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan; Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Student Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan; Research Center for Environmental Pollutants, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
5 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Afshin Ebrahimi
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Environment Research Center, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81676-36954
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.184225

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Aims: The sonoelectrochemical mineralization of the synthetic aqueous solution of the perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on Ti/PbO 2 anode was investigated using the response surface methodology based on a central composite design (CCD). Materials and Methods: The CCD was performed using three different variables such as current density (CD) (mA/cm 2 ), pH, and supporting electrolyte (EL) concentration (mM). The total organic carbon (TOC) removal was determined as an indicator of PFOA mineralization. A Shimadzu TOC analyzer was used to measure the TOC of the samples. The Ti/PbO 2 electrode was prepared using the electrochemical deposition method. In order to enhance the electrochemical mineralization, ultrasonic (US) radiation was used. The US frequency was 20 kHz. Results: The optimum conditions for PFOA mineralization in synthetic solution were EL concentration of 94 mM, pH of 2, and CD of 83.64 mA/cm 2 , which resulted in complete TOC removal. The results indicated that the most effective factor for PFOA mineralization was CD. Besides, the TOC removal efficiency significantly increased with increasing CD. Conclusions: Under optimum conditions, the mineralization of PFOA was almost completed after 90 min of sonoelectrolysis. Therefore, sonoelectrolysis was found to be a more effective technique for mineralization of an environmentally persistent compound.


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