Print this page Email this page
Users Online: 194
Home About us Editorial board Search Browse articles Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

Previous article Browse articles Next article 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Int J Env Health Eng 2013,  2:3

Analysis of Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) concentration in Khorramabad city


Environment Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Isfahan, Iran, and Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, IUMS, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Web Publication31-Jan-2013

Correspondence Address:
Seyed Hamed Mirhosseini
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Hezar-Jerib St., Isfahan
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: Lorestan University of Medical Science, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.106635

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Aims: In this study, the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in eight station of Khorramabad city was analyzed.
Materials and Methods: For this study, the data were taken from April 2010 to March 2011. The eight sampling point were chosen in account to Khorramabad maps. During this period, 240 daily PM samples including coarse particle (PM 10 ) and fine particle (PM 2.5 ) were collected. A two-part sampler was used to collect samples of PM. According to one-way ANOVA, multiple comparisons Scheffe, the obtained data were analyzed and then compared with the Environment protection organization standard rates. Khorramabad
Results: The results revealed that during measuring the maximum concentration of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was respectively 120.9 and 101.09 μ/m 3 at Shamshirabad station. There was a significant difference between the mean values of PM 10 concentration (μg/m 3 ) in the seasons of summer. In addition, the mean concentrations of PM 10 in warmer months exceeded to the maximum permissible concentration.
Conclusions: Year comparison of PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration with standard were revealed particle matter concentration in summer season was higher than standard. Although total mean of particle matter was less than standard concentration.

Keywords: Aerosol, air pollution, khorramabad, particulate matters


How to cite this article:
Mirhosseini SH, Birjandi M, Zare MR, Fatehizadeh A. Analysis of Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) concentration in Khorramabad city. Int J Env Health Eng 2013;2:3

How to cite this URL:
Mirhosseini SH, Birjandi M, Zare MR, Fatehizadeh A. Analysis of Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) concentration in Khorramabad city. Int J Env Health Eng [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Nov 17];2:3. Available from: http://www.ijehe.org/text.asp?2013/2/1/3/106635


  Introduction Top


Effects of air pollution on human health since the past have been considered by researchers and people. Particulate matter or PM is the term for particles found in the air, including dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. According to report the United Nations environment program (UNEP), the particulate matters are most important pollutants in the world cities. [1] Especially in cities high concentration of airborne particles, are serious problems for air quality. [2] In recent years, numerous epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between the concentration of particle matter in urban air and respiratory diseases, pulmonary damage, and mortality among population. [3],[4],[5],[6],[7] Atmospheric particles originate from a variety of sources and possess a range of physical and chemical properties. Collectively, particulate pollution is often referred to as total suspended particulates (TSP). Fine particulates less than 10 and 2.5 microns in size are referred to as PM 10 and PM 2.5 , respectively. Short-term exposure to PM 10 can irritate the lungs and perhaps cause immune responses; lung constriction, producing shortness of breath and cough may also result. The materials dissolving from the particles can also damage cells. Larger particles deposit in the upper respiratory tract, while smaller inhalable particulates travel deeper into the lungs and are retained for longer periods of time. Long-term, lower level PM 10 exposure may cause cancer and premature deaths. [8] Exposure to PM 2.5 is associated with several serious health effects like premature death, respiratory related hospital admissions and emergency room visits and aggravated asthma. PM 2.5 exposure is also responsible for acute respiratory symptoms, including aggravated coughing and difficult or painful breathing; chronic bronchitis; decreased lung function that can be experienced as shortness of breath; and work and school absences. Adverse health effects have been associated with exposures to PM over both short periods (such as a day) and longer periods (a year or more). Particulate matter of heavy metals, asbestos, aromatic hydrocarbons are carcinogenic. [9] The other hand, aerosols cause reduced visibility, adverse effects on ecosystems and plant growth can be reduced or stopped. World Health Organization study showed that increased by 10 micrograms of aerosols, the mortality rate of 1 to 3 percent increases. [10] PM emissions are a key health concern with estimated economic damage costs much higher than for other pollutants. These pollutants have the highest diversity and complexity and the wide dissemination. Size, concentration and chemical composition of particulate matters is their most important characteristics. [11],[12] Thus the need to study the properties of particulate matter and their distribution to determine the origin of these particles in different cities one of the priorities of the program is to control air pollution in cities. Considering the geographical location of Khorramabad the region's topography and urban structure unfit for vehicle traffic, this city has a high potential to increase the concentration of Particulate matter. The purpose of this study was to analysis the average concentration of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in different areas and season in the Khorramabad city.


  Materials and Methods Top


This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the Khorramabad city. Khorramabad city with a population over 540 000 people is the most important cities in western Iran. This city in 48° 21′E longitude and 30° 43′ N latitude is located. For this study data from April 2010 to March 2011 were taken. To determine the sampling points; after studying maps Khorramabad, metropolitan area was divided into four zones. And each of these areas is considered as a class then within each of these areas was randomly sampled in two locations. A total of eight sites were determined as measuring stations [Figure 1]. During the sampling period, 240 daily PM samples including PM 10 and PM 2.5 were collected. A two-part sampler was used to collect samples of PM (Anderson sampler for collection of PM 10 and PM 2.5 ). The sampler has an inlet with PM 10 cut-off, which collects particles smaller than 10 μm. The particles are collected on Teflon membrane filters with a diameter of 37 μm and 2 μm pore size. Sampling with a low -volume flow rate of 2.4 was operated. Similarly, PM 2.5 was performed according to standard of United State Environmental Protection Agency. [13] The membrane filters were placed into the desiccators at room temperature for at least 24 hours to achieve stable humidity before Sampling. Initial and final weightings filters were performed in the laboratory at a temperature and humidity controlled room (T = 25 ± 1°C, RH = 50 ± 2%). For each sample, measurements were repeated three times and average weights are reported.
Figure 1: Location of the monitors in the city of Khoramabad

Click here to view



  Results Top


In [Table 1] is showed the average 24-hour particulate matter concentration during the entire period of the study. Results showed that the maximum 24 h of particulate matter concentration during measurement period is related to S 5 station. In this station, PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were found 120.9 ± 28.6 and 101.9 ± 51 μg/m 3 , respectively.
Table 1: Average 24-hour particulate matter concentration during the entire period

Click here to view


During this time, in S 1 Station was obtained minimum average concentration of particulate matter with PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations 63.37 ± 35 and 52 ± 20.2 μg/m 3 , respectively.

[Figure 2] is showed daily PM 10 concentration at stations in different season and [Figure 3] is showed PM 2.5 concentration at stations in different season. The daily average concentration of particulate matter in the months and warm seasons (spring and summer) were higher than average concentration in cold seasons (autumn and winter). The comparison of PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations at different season is showed that the mean particle concentration in different seasons, there are significant differences (P value < 0.001). Scheffe paired comparison between the average PM 10 and PM 2.5 particles in autumn and winter revealed there is no significant difference and the other seasons are significant differences [Table 2].
Figure 2: Daily PM10 concentration at stations in different season

Click here to view
Figure 3: Daily PM2.5 concentration at stations in different season

Click here to view
Table 2: The comparison of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at different season

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


In recent decades, Asian countries have significant growth and urban development and energy use. Thus, air pollution is considered as a serious threat to the environment, quality of life and health of people in these countries. In developing countries to identify emission sources, effects and pattern transfer is difficult because the data are scarce, high emissions and health effects are severe. Increased concentrations of PM (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) have been reported in six Asian countries (Bandung, Bangkok, Beijing, Chennai, Manila, and Hanoi).The average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were in the range 44 - 168 and 54 - 262 μg/m 3 in the dry season and 18 - 104 and 33 - 180 μg/m 3 in the wet season, respectively. [14] Study conducted by the Gujar, et al. (2008) showed that Karachi ranks as the most polluted megacity with an PM annual average concentration of 668 μg/m 3 . [15] Studies conducted by the Clean Air Initiative (CAI 2006) for the twenty megacities showed the average concentration of TSP and PM 10 has decreased from 1993 to 2004, but ambient levels remain above the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. [16] The results obtained in this research showed that the annual values of the PM 10 , PM 2.5 concentrations in Khorramabad are lower than the maximum values of standards of national submissions. However, the average concentration of particulate matter in summer was higher than national standard. The main reason for the higher concentration of particulate matter in the summer was the occurrence of very strong dust entered from Iraq that it has significant impact on the air quality of Khorramabad and even in the days to thirteen times the standard limit is reached. The efforts must be performed in this field, given that the relationship between mortality and increasing the concentration of particulate matter. According to the results of the study during and after storms in Taiwan, spatial patterns of PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations show seasonal variation that has occurred due to storms and meteorological conditions and the difference of the mixture distribution of high and low particulate matter concentrations during the dust storm is significant. [17] In research conducted by Celis and, et al. (2004) in the sixth points in the city of Chile showed that in the downtown area the concentration of particulate matter PM 10 were higher than from other area. [18] According to research conducted in USA (2005), particulate matter measurement results showed that highway and marginal urban areas by improving traffic bottleneck, the amount of particulate matter is reduced to 41 percent. [19] The studies of on the mass PM 2.5 and PM 1 effects in Helsinki urban air pollution (2004) showed that PM 2.5 is the most effective PM index for air pollution which is most significantly associated with respiratory and Cardiovascular disease. [20] Measurements of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in urban area of Nanjing, China showed that more than 70% of total suspended particles are of a size that they are deposited in the respiratory tract below trachea, whereas about 22% of the mass is respirable and will reach the alveoli. [21]


  Conclusion Top


Overall, based on the results obtained in this study PM 10 and PM 2.5 Concentrations at warm month in year were higher than the WHO and EPA standard and in high-traffic areas and crowded of city, the concentration of particles is higher than other areas. Specific topographic conditions in this region and also sometimes by farmers burning of farms around the city in order to eliminate weeds is an important role in increasing the density of particulate matter in this city. Finally, the survey results show that implementation of basic actions to the control dust entering to the country by spreading mulch and development of green space is essential. Also traffic control and optimization of urban traffic, public education and application of technical regulations and urban development will have an important role in controlling air pollutants including particulate matter.

 
  References Top

1.Mage D, Ozolins G, Peterson P, Webster A, Orthofer R, Van Der Weerd V, et al. Urban Air Pollution in Megacities of the World. Atmos Environ 1996;3:681-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Langner M, Kull M, Endlicher WR. Determination of PM 10 deposition based on antimony flux to selected urban surfaces. Environ Pollut 2011;159:2028-34.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.Baccarelli A, Barretta F, Dou C, Zhang X, McCracken JP, Diaz A, et al., Effects of particulate air pollution on blood pressure in a highly exposed population in Beijing, China: a repeated-measure study, Environmental Health 2011;10:108-118.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Samet JM, Dominici F, Curriero FC, Coursac I, Zeger SL. Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 US cities1987-1994. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1742-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.Brunekreef B, Holgate ST. Text Book of Air pollution and health. Lancet 2002;360:1233-42.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Scapellato ML, Lotti M. Short-term effects of particulate matter: An inflammatory mechanism? Crit Rev Toxicol 2007;37:461-87.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.Scapellato ML, Canova C, de Simone A, Carrieri M, Maestrlli P, Simonato L, et al. Personal PM 10 exposure in asthmatic adults in Padova, Italy: seasonal variability and factors affecting individual concentrations of particulate matter. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2009;212:626-36.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Valavanidis A, Fiotakis K, Vlachogianni T. Airborne particulate matter and human health: Toxicological assessment and importance of size and composition of particles for oxidative damage and carcinogenic mechanisms. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 2008;26:339-62.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.Das M, Maiti SK, Mukhopadyay U. Distribution of PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 in PM 10 fraction in ambient air due to vehicular pollution in Kolkata megacity. Environ Monit Assess 2006;122:111-23.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.U.S. Department of Health Education and welfare Environmental Health services Air quality criteria for photochemical oxidants. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government printing Office; 1970, Parts 9 and 10.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    
11.Jantunen M, Hanninen O, Koistinen K, Hashim JH. Fine PM measurements: Personal and indoor air monitoring. Chemosphere 2002;42:993-1007.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Wilson WE, Chow JC, Claiborn C, Fusheng W, Engelbrecht J, Watson JG. Monitoring of particulate matter outdoors. Chemosphere 2002;49:1009-43.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Robertson T. Methods for Measurement of Filterable PM 10 and PM 2.5 and Measurement of Condensable PM Emissions from Stationary Sources. Environmental Quality Management 2010, Inc, December.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Kim Oanh NT, Upadhyay N, Zhuang YH, Hao ZP, Murthy DVS, Lestari P, et al. Particulate air pollution in six Asian cities: Spatial and temporal distributions, and associated sources. Atmos Environ 2006;40:3367-80.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Gurjar BR, Butler TM, Lawrence MG, Lelieveld J. Evaluation of emissions and air quality in megacities. Atmos Environ 2008;42:1593-606.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.CAI-Asia (2006) Country synthesis reports on urban air quality management in Asia. Available at http://wwwcleanairnetorg/ caiasia/1412/article-70822html. [Last accessed on 2009 Jul 14].  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Jay CH, Lung YH, Ming KY. Identifying spatial mixture distributions of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Taiwan during and after a dust storm. Atmos Environ 2012;1-10.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Celis JE, Morales JR, Zaror CA, Inzunza JC. A study of the particulate matter PM 10 composition in the atmosphere of Chilean, Chile. Chemosphere 2004;54:541-50.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Laden F, Schwartz J, Speizer FE, Dockery DW. Reduction in Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 2006;173:667-72.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Hameri K, Hussein T, Kulmala M, Aalto P. Measurement of fine and ultrafine particle in Helsinki: Connection between outdoor and indoor air quality. Boreal Env Res 2004;9:459-67.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Wang G, Huang L, Gao S, Gao S, Wang L. Measurements of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in urban area of Nanjing, China and the assessment of pulmonary deposition of particle mass. Chemosphere 2002;48:689-95.  Back to cited text no. 21
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


This article has been cited by
1 Health Impact Assessment Associated with Exposure to PM10 and Dust Storms in Kuwait
Ali Al-Hemoud,Ali Al-Dousari,Ahmad Al-Shatti,Ahmed Al-Khayat,Weam Behbehani,Mariam Malak
Atmosphere. 2018; 9(1): 6
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Levels of particulate matters in air of the Gonabad city, Iran
Seyed Ali Sajjadi,Zahra Atarodi,Amir Hossein Lotfi,Ahmad Zarei
MethodsX. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Risk of morbidity attributed to ambient PM10 in the western cities of Iran
Mohammad Daryanoosh,Gholamreza Goudarzi,Rajab Rashidi,Fariba Keishams,Philip K. Hopke,Mohammad Javad Mohammadi,Heshmatollah Nourmoradi,Pierre Sicard,Afshin Takdastan,Mehdi Vosoughi,Mohammad Veysi,Mahsa Kianizadeh,Yusef Omidi Khaniabadi
Toxin Reviews. 2017; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Hospital Admission for Respiratory and Cardiovascular Diseases Due to Particulate Matter in Ilam, Iran
Seyed Mohammad Daryanoosh,Gholamreza Goudarzi,Heshmatollah Nourmoradi,Ata Allh Vaisi,Houshang Armin,Yusef Omidi
Jundishapur Journal of Health Sciences. 2016; In press(In press)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Air Quality and Health Risks Associated With Exposure to Particulate Matter: A Cross-Sectional Study in Khorramabad, Iran
Heshmatollah Nourmoradi,Yusef Omidi Khaniabadi,Gholamreza Goudarzi,Seyed Mohammad Daryanoosh,Mohammad Khoshgoftar,Fatemeh Omidi,Houshang Armin
Health Scope. 2016; In Press(In Press)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Cardiovascular, respiratory, and total mortality attributed to PM2.5 in Mashhad, Iran
Ziaeddin Bonyadi,Mohammad Hasan Ehrampoush,Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian,Mehdi Mokhtari,Abbas Sadeghi
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2016; 188(10)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Sulfur and Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure and the Incidence of Health Endpoints in Ahvaz, Iran
Sahar Geravandi,Gholamreza Goudarzi,Mohammad Javad Mohammadi,Sepideh Sadat Taghavirad,Shokrollah Salmanzadeh
Health Scope. 2015; 4(2)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
Previous article  Next article
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3422    
    Printed128    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded341    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 7    

Recommend this journal